Knowledge Base

Setting up extraction tables for outcomes

Adding an Outcome

Each outcome has its own extraction table, so to begin setting up your table first click 'Add Outcome', and give it a name.

Types of data

Under Outcome Type, you can choose one of three options, which each have further options for how the data and levels of variation are reported, selected under Reported As:

  • Continuous outcome
    • Mean with Standard Error, Standard Deviation, or Confidence Intervals
  • Dichotomous outcome
    • Number of events, Percentage of events, or Ratios with Confidence Intervals
  • Adverse event
    • Number of events, Percentage of events, or Ratios with Confidence Intervals


If study data are reported differently to any of the standard option choices, you can create a new custom effect measure.

Custom effect measures can have any number of labels. If you want more than three labels, simply click ‘Add label’. If you want less than three labels, delete one by clicking ‘Remove’. The intervention arms form the row headers, while the labels form the columns for each timepoint in your subsequent outcome table.

When choosing a custom effect measure you can input data in the following formats: integer, decimal, percent, or plain text.

Currently you cannot export custom effect measures to RevMan. You can still export to CSV/Excel though!



Other outcome identifiers

You can also add an outcome sub-group in this screen. Other identifying details you may choose to collect include unit, scale, range, direction of improvement, whether data are a final value or change from baseline, and how complete the outcome reporting is.

Please note that this data will export to RevMan but not CSV/Excel.

You can always change this information later by clicking the pencil icon next to the outcome title. To view it once back in the Outcomes screen, click the "i" icon.



Building the Outcome Table

The study interventions you added under Interventions will appear as rows, and timepoints you add will appear as columns. You may add as many timepoints as you like.

Once you've added your timepoints, your table is ready for data to be entered. If you need to indicate missing data, click the "add 'missing data' tag" button below the table. Missing data cells will appear as grey. To remove this tag, click into the grey-ed out cells and click "Remove 'missing data' tag".



Regardless of the outcome type that you choose, if you enter data in a format that is different to what is expected, then Covidence will display a red box around that entry. This data will not save or be available at the point of consensus. It will also not export to both CSV/Excel and RevMan.